Marketing is the process of designing, pricing, promoting and distributing goods and services.

Marketing activities may be described by the four Ps:

  • product (what to sell)
  • price (what prices to charge)
  • place (where to sell it)
  • promotion (advertising, discounts etc.)

What is direct marketing?


Some examples of direct marketing are:


  • direct mail,
  • telemarketing,
  • catalogs,
  • websites
  • newsletters.

Direct mail is a very practical marketing tool for a small business. These are mailings for various products or services which are often called junk mail. Another tool is telemarketing/telesales (selling by phone). Telemarketers work in call centres. If some person is contacted for the first time this is called a cold call.

A distribution network:

producers (producenci)→ wholesalers (hurtownicy)→ retailers (sprzedawcy detaliczni)→ customers (klienci)

Market research

Market research is a process of testing customers’needs and expectations, usually with the use of questionnaires and surveys. Such surveys contain questions about what people buy and why.